Several art works and objects seized in 1938 following the Anschluss, or annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany from Baron and Baroness Alphonse and Clarice de Rothschild of Vienna—members of the celebrated Rothschild banking family, are currently on view in a new exhibition at The Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Decedents of the prominent family have gifted several European decorative arts, furniture, prints, drawings, paintings, and personal objects including jewelry and jeweled objects, miniatures and rare books to the collection. A selection from the collection will be on view in the exhibition.
Telling the story of how the objects were collected, looted and then recovered by the family and its heirs, the exhibition—on view in the MFA’s Lee Gallery—offers an evocative sampling of the exquisite objects that earned the admiration of collectors around Europe, embodying what was once known as le goût Rothschild, or “the Rothschild taste.” By tracing the provenance, or ownership history, of the works from the historic Rothschild palaces in Vienna, through World War II and finally back to the Baroness and her daughter, exhibition curators illustrate how generations of Rothschild women worked diligently to secure the return of their family’s treasures. The collection is a gift of the heirs of Bettina Looram de Rothschild, who was a daughter of the Baron and Baroness. Her daughter, MFA Trustee Bettina Burr, is among the donors who have made this gift to the MFA.
“It is the Museum’s mission to bring art and people together, and we believe that art tells powerful stories,” said Malcolm Rogers, Ann and Graham Gund Director at the MFA. “This collection—with its rare and beautiful objects treasured by the Rothschild family, then lost and recovered—tells a story like no other.”
The Nazi regime confiscated nearly 3,500 works of art from the Rothschild collection. Many of the objects were selected for the Führermuseum, the art museum Adolf Hitler planned for the Austrian city of Linz. After World War II, Allied forces uncovered the Nazi-looted artwork in the Austrian salt mines of Alt Aussee, and began the process of its restitution, or return to its rightful owners. In 1947, Baroness de Rothschild visited the mines and, with the help of the Allied “Monuments” men, was able to identify crates of art from her family’s collection, and the majority of the works were returned to her soon after. However, in exchange for permission to export her collection to the US (where she was then residing with her family), she was required to donate approximately 250 of the finest works to the Austrian state. After the Baroness passed away in 1967, her daughter Bettina continued to pursue the return of these objects. It wasn’t until 1999, after Austria passed a national restitution law, that Bettina was able to recover these works.
The Rothschild family has been involved in the world of international banking since the 18th century, and each branch—including members in Germany, England, Austria, France and Italy—amassed legendary collections of art. Following the Anschluss in March 1938, Nazi forces seized Rothschild properties and collections in Vienna, specifically targeting the family’s art collections for confiscation. The only objects that escaped seizure were jewelry, which Baroness de Rothschild had taken with her on a trip to England at the time. Bettina Looram de Rothschild, then 13 years old, was still in Vienna and attempted to flee Austria with her sister Gwendoline and household staff. Before they could reach the Swiss border, the Gestapo stopped the train and forced all Jews to disembark. The sisters spent the day in jail before being released.
The exhibition, Restoring a Legacy: Rothschild Family Treasures, features nearly 80 objects that were personally meaningful to the Rothschild family, including a Portrait of Clarice de Rothschild (1925) by Philip de László, and much of her jewelry. Mostly from the 19th and early 20th centuries, the jewelry was with the Baroness in London at the time of the Anschluss, which meant it was not confiscated by the Nazi regime. Exquisite artistry and craftsmanship can be seen in objects such as a Diamond necklace/tiara (1920s) with nine stunning, pear-shaped diamonds, and an Art Deco Brooch (Austrian, about 1937) incorporating two emerald beads that originated in Colombia and were cut in India. The emerald brooch was a gift of the Baron to the Baroness on the occasion of their 25th wedding anniversary on November 20, 1937, just a few months before the Anschluss.
Included in the exhibition is Portrait of Emma Hart, later Lady Hamilton (George Romney, English, 1734–1802). This painting depicts the mistress to Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson and, before him, Charles Greville—a friend and patron of the painter. Known for her beauty and ability to strike a range of expressions, she regularly sat for the artist beginning in 1782. In the work, Hart is presented in contemporary dress, though Romney more frequently depicted her in allegorical, mythological or religious guises. The painting was in good condition when it arrived at the MFA, and cleaning revealed its glowing colors and exciting brushwork. The location of this particular work was previously unknown to scholars, and it has since proven to be the primary version of one of the artist’s most popular compositions. Furniture in the exhibition includes a Commode with corner cupboards (commode à encoignures) attributed to Claude Charles Saunier from about 1770-80, which has a shaped front that incorporates a circular Japanese lacquer panel. Designed with open shelves at either end, the cabinet is in the English taste—a popular fashion in France during the reign of Louis XVI.
A wide variety of objets de vertu made of lavish materials—including gold, agate, lacquer, enamel and gemstones—form an important part of the gift. Beautifully constructed Snuffboxes and Etuis (cases) would have been meant for holding ground tobacco, personal grooming tools (toothpicks, needles, scissors and files), dance cards, spyglasses or timepieces, or would have been used as elegant costume accessories. By the end of the 19th century, when the fashion for snuff-taking had declined, these objects were often collected to be displayed and enjoyed by connoisseurs. The inscription around the rim of one Snuff box (Probably England, about 1750–60) reads “L’ESPOIR DE TA FIDELITE FAIT MA SEULE FELICITE” (The hope of your fidelity is my sole happiness)—leaving no doubt that this box was presented as a token of love.
‘Restoring a Legacy: Rothschild Family Treasures’ on view from March 1–June 21, 2015.Museum of Fine Arts Boston USA